TENTATIVE ITINERARY FOR RYAN RALLY 2000 IN IRELAND!
As of January 17, 2000
|Terry Ryan says, "the number of people who've committed to the Ryan Rally . . . " is||
Group Tour Rates and
Below is a tentative itinerary for the Ryan Rally to be held in Ireland in September 2000! This schedule has been put together through the input of people indicating an interest in going, our hosts in Ireland, and people who have been to various places in Ireland. Many thanks also to Dayna Ryan in Ohio and Jim Ryan in California for their efforts in compiling many suggestions and developing a suggested itinerary from which the below has been developed. Should you have any comments, please contact Terry Ryan at: email@example.com . ALSO, should you and/or your family wish to participate in the trip, please contact Terry IMMEDIATELY!
Lastly, information on transportation, membership requirements, and hotel information can be found at the end of the following itinerary. It is important that this information, especially on membership requirements, be read.
Sunday, September 3, 2000
Leave U.S. from Boston, Mass.
Monday, September 4, 2000
Arrive Dublin Airport. Transportation to Dublin Centre.
Arrive Dublin hotel and check in (now considering Jurys Hotel)
Dr. Jim Ryan, speaking on Irish and Ryan Genealogy.
Suggestions for consideration:
-conduct family research at various national archives;
-visit historical sites;
-take walking tour starting at Trinity College
Tuesday, September 5, 2000
8:30 Dr. Jim Ryan, speaking on Irish and Ryan Genealogy.
9:00 board tour bus for sightseeing local areas of interest
1:00 conduct family research at various national archives
??? workshop with local genealogist/historian in Dublin
Wednesday, September 6, 2000
9:00 Leave Dublin hotel
10:00 Arrive Trim Castle (approximately 30 miles)
11:00 Leave Trim Castle
12:00 Arrive Hill of Tara (20 miles)
The historic hill (155 m/507 ft above sea level) is in County Meath, Ireland, southeast of An Uaimh (Navan). The hill was a center of pre-Christian religion and, before 560 AD, the seat of the kings of Ireland. Several mounds indicate the location of the Hall of Kings and a pillar stone, called the Stone of Destiny, is believed to be the place where the kings were crowned. Archaeological excavations have revealed numerous Bronze Age burials.
1:00 Leave Tara
1:30 Arrive Bru na Boinne Visitor Centre, Newgrange/Knowth (15 miles).
Newgrange is part of a large complex of monuments built along a bend of the River Boyne known collectively as Bru na Boinne. The other two principal monuments are Knowth (the largest) and Dowth but, throughout the region, there are as many as 35 smaller passage-tombs and many other sites of great archaeological importance and interest.
Newgrange is arguably one of the finest monuments of European pre-history. Dating to circa 3200-5000 BC, it is thought to have been built during the New Stone Age by a wealthy farming community that prospered on the rich lands of the Boyne Valley in County Meath. Historians classify it as a passage-tomb, but for its builders Newgrange was much more than simply a place of burial. It housed the spirits of their ancestors, providing a link for the living community to the world of their deities and serving as a focal point for ritual and celebration.
Excavations conducted beginning in 1962 revealed Knowth to be a complicated multi-period site. There are 18 smaller tombs around the great mound, at least two of which are even older than it is. Knowth was a focal point for ritual activity until the early Bronze Age. After that there is a gap in the story until about the time of Christ, when the mound was transformed into a fortified dwelling. Settlement continued at Knowth, and by 800 AD, it was the residence of the Kings of Northern Brega, one of whom became High King of Ireland. Though these settlements are significant, it is as a passage-tomb cemetery that its fame and intrigue lie.
3:00 Leave Newgrange/Knowth
4:00 Return to Dublin hotel (25 miles)
Thursday, September 7, 2000
9:30 Leave Dublin hotel. Check-out
10:00 Arrive Powerscourt Gardens (15 miles)
The Powerscourt Estate at Enniskerry, County Wicklow, has always drawn visitors to its magnificent gardens. The estate is located just 12 miles south of Dublin and offers both 40-minute and one-hour walking trails. In the past year, however, the stately 18th century Georgian-style house has been restored and re-opened to the public, adding a new dimension to a visit and making Powerscourt a truly all-weather attraction.
The house offers a range of activities, from continuous audio-visuals and exhibits on the history and development of the house and gardens, to an 11-unit craft center, offering knitwear, books, stationery, pottery, glass, cashmere, jewelry, and more, with many items designed specifically with a Powerscourt label.
The restaurant, located in the original kitchen of the house, is divided into two sections: a fish bar and a café bar, with extensive indoor seating amid a sky-blue interior and outdoor setting on a large terrace.
11:15 Leave Powerscourt
11:45 Arrive Glendalough (15 miles)
This early Christian monastic site was founded by St. Kevin in the 6th century. Set in a glaciated valley with two lakes, the monastic remains include a superb round tower, stone churches and decorated crosses. The Visitor Center has an interesting exhibition and an audio-visual show, entitled "Ireland of the Monasteries." Guided tours of the monastic site are available.
12:30 Leave Glendalough. Drive through the Vale of Avoca.
The village of Avoca is situated in a picturesque valley that extends from the Meeting of the Waters to Woodenbridge. The Irish names Droichead Nua (Newbridge) and Abhainn Mor (Big River) indicate a village which has developed at a crossing point over the River Avoca. It is a focal point of routeways from Arklow, Aughrim, Woodenbridge, Rathdrum, and Redcross. The scenic village has provided the basic services for the surrounding inhabitants, who have a long tradition of mining, farming and tourism. Local tourist attractions include forest and hill walks, the Mottee Stone, Avoca Handweavers, craft shops, traditional music, trout fishing, the golf course at Woodenbridge, and sandy beaches at the coast, five miles away.
2:00 Through Ferns (landmark only, 30 miles)
3:00 Arrive Duiske Abbey (40 miles) (Leighlin Cathedral?)
In the late 12th century, Dermot O'Ryan of Idrone granted land for the building of an abbey at Graiguenamanagh, called the Cistercian Duiske Abbey. It is one of the oldest buildings associated with the Ryan family and is still intact and beautifully restored. Today it is used as the parish church.
4:00 Leave Duiske Abbey
5:00 Arrive Waterford (30 miles). Hotel check in.
Friday, September 8, 2000
8-9:00 Leave Waterford hotel. Check out.
9:30 Waterford Crystal Factory Tour
April to October Hours: Tours 8:30 am - 4:00 pm; Gallery 8:30am - 6:00 pm (7 days)
11:00 Leave Waterford
11:30 Arrive Jerpoint Abbey (18 miles)
Jerpoint Abbey, Thomastown. Cited as the finest Cistercian ruins in Ireland. Among its many interesting features are the superb cloisters, early effigies and a beautiful east rose window. There is a visitor center with exhibitions. Guide services available. Open daily from 9:30 am to 6:30 pm. Note: last admission 45 minutes before closing. Small admission fee.
12:30 Leave Jerpoint Abbey
1:00 Arrive Kells Priory/Kilree Abbey (7 miles)
An extensive Augustinian Priory founded in 1193. A striking conglomeration of mediaeval buildings with an extensive, fortified walled area protected by seven towers or turrets.
2:00 Leave Kells
2:30 Arrive Ahenny High Crosses (10 miles)
The Ahenny and Kilkieran High Crosses near Carrick-on-Suir date from the 8th Century, the early Christian period. The North Cross at Ahenny is the most fascinating with its symbolism and detailed tracery (including old Celtic patterns of intercalary and spirals). The North Cross at Ahenny is unique among various other crosses in the land, (examples include Monasterboige, Clonmacnoise and Moone High Cross). Rather than being a tool of religious propaganda and instruction for the illiterate masses, its symbolism is liberal and unrigid to the point of being a product of an indigenous local culture.
3:00 Leave Ahenny
4:00 Arrive Dundrum (45 miles); Dundrum House Hotel check-in
4:00 Welcome Social at the Dundrum House Hotel
(double check time for Welcome Social!!)
Dundrum House was built in 1730 by Lord Hawarden, Earl of Montalt on land once held by ancient Irish chieftains, the O'Dwyers of Kilnamanagh. The building is of the Georgian style. The Hawardens sold the property to a religious order in the early part of this century and the Crowe family bought the house and adjoining lands by the Multeen River in 1978. Austin and Mary Crowe have created a country manor house of exceptional style and warmth reflecting the elegance of the period in which it was built. Dundrum House Hotel is a grade A 3 Star Hotel.
6:00 Social ends
Saturday, September 9, 2000
9:00 Leave Dundrum for tour of the local area
9:30 Arrive Cashel/Hore Abbey (7 miles)
The great 4th century fortification of Cashel, known as the Stone Fort, was the seat of kings and mediaeval bishops for 900 years and flourished until the early 17th century. Indeed, there was a settlement here from pre-Christian times, traces of which have long since vanished.
In the 5th century St. Patrick converted Aenghus, the king of the time, and made Cashel a bishopric. In 1101, Muircheartach O'Brien granted the Rock to the Church. In 1127, Bishop Cormac MacCarthy, started work on a chapel which survives to this day and is the most remarkable Romanesque church in the country. A round tower was added about this time. The largest building on the Rock is the 13th century cathedral. All in all, the complex represents the most impressive mediaeval collection of buildings in Ireland.
Brú Ború - The palace of Ború - is a national heritage center at the foot of the Rock of Cashel. This cultural and interpretative village is designed around a village green and is home to the study and celebration of native Irish music, song, dance, story telling, theater and Celtic studies.
10:30 Leave Cashel
11:00 Arrive Athassel Abbey (5 miles)
Athassel Abbey is the largest mediaeval priory in Ireland, dating from the 12th century. Includes extensive outbuildings in a riverside setting.
11:30 Leave Athassel Abbey
12:00 Arrive Cahir (10 Miles)
Cahir Castle is built on a rocky island in the River Suir (the name is derived from the Gaelic Cathair, meaning stone fort). Although the island was well fortified before, most of the current castle was built in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
The castle was perhaps the strongest fortification in Ireland at the time of Tyrone's Rebellion. In 1599, Queen Elizabeth sent the Earl of Essex at the head of an army to crush the rebellion. In May of that year, he took Cahir Castle. The castle fell in three days, after the Earl's cannon and culverin (he had one of each) battered down substantial portions of the east wall.
The castle, though easily strong enough to stand against the normal raids, was very vulnerable to gunpowder. Thus, in 1650, when Cromwell appeared before Cahir and presented his usual offer to allow the garrison to "march away with your baggage, arms, and colors, free from injuries or violence," it appears that the garrison attempted no resistance.
The castle was allowed to fall into disrepair following the Civil War. In 1840, the Earl of Glengall had William Tinsley begin repairs, which continued through 1846. This work, unfortunately not accurate restoration, is responsible for much of the detailed appearance today.
12:30 Leave Cahir
1:00 Arrive Holycross Abbey (25 miles)
The Ryans have left their mark not only in the traditional Owney territories, but also all over mid and north Tipperary and East Limerick, where they are to be found in almost every parish today. For instance, Holycross Abbey, nine miles north of Cashel in County Tipperary, had an abbot in 1455 named Matthew O'Mulryan. One of King Donal Mor O'Brien's great buildings, Holycross has been extensively restored. Declared a national monument in 1880 and restored in 1971-5, it is a key place of pilgrimage because it houses a relic of the "True Cross" passed down from the cross of Christ. It contains excellent examples of Irish Gothic craftsmanship, a medieval sedilia, and murals believed to have originated in the 14th century. Inch House, the home of a branch known by that name, is only seven miles from Holycross and is quite close to another prominent Ryan district, Borrisleigh, where a branch of the family owned 906 acres of land in the 17th century. Like the powerful Tyrone branch of the family just south Nenagh, County Tipperary, many of the Ryans have lived in these areas for centuries but, no doubt, originated from within the Owney territory. Cathair Mor, the Founder of the Clan, is reputed to have been herded across the south of Ireland between the two ma-' territories of the family, Idrone and Owney.
1:45 Leave Holycross Abbey
Inch House.Appears to be a drive-by. Currently a hotel.
A substantial Ryan castle is reputed to have existed atSologhead, five miles north west of Tipperary Town. Situated in the midst of some of the best land in the Golden Vale, and halfway between the Tipperary hills and the county's central range, this site was one of great importance through the centuries. Back in the 11th century, the great King Brian Boru had a successful skirmish with the invading Danes at Sologhead. A significant ambush also took place there in the Irish War of Independence earlier this century. Although the castle and the nearby Abbey are no longer visible, gravediggers often discover the latters ancient walls. A fine new church is now located on the site. Ballyryan, 'the town of the Ryans," is located near Sologhead and now consists of only a few houses.
Sologhead & Ballyryan
3:00 Return to Dundrum
6:00 Banquet and dinner at Kinnitty Castle
Sunday, September 10, 2000
9:00 Leave Dundrum
2:00 Travel to Ring of Kerry and stay at local hotel
Monday, September 11, 2000
9:00 Visit Ring of Kerry
1:00 Travel to Ennistymon and stay at Falls Hotel
Tuesday, September 12, 2000
9:00 Check out of hotel and travel to Cliffs of Moher
10:00 Arrive Cliffs of Moher/O'Brien's Tower
These majestic cliffs rise from the Atlantic Ocean to a height of nearly 200m and extend for a distance of 8km from Hag's Head due west of Liscannor to a point beyond O'Brien's Tower. They take their name from a ruined promontory fort, Mothar, which was demolished during the Napoleonic wars to make room for a signal tower.
12:30 Leave Cliffs of Moher/O'Brien's Tower and travel to Limerick
(Next few sites are TENTATIVE depending on time schedule and ability to arrive at Great Southern Hotel for final dinner together tonight)
Killaloe: Cragg Castle, Cathedral, Thorgrim's Stone, Heritage Centre
Many of the buildings constructed by the Ryans (O'Mulryans) when they arrived in the Owney territory of Munster were demolished prior to or during the 17th century when their properties were confiscated. One of the castles destroyed in the mid-15th century by the Earl of Ormond was Cragg Castle in County Tipperary, six miles southeast of Killaloe. Situated on rocky, elevated ground overlooking the River Shannon, this stronghold was built here because of its strategic location. One mile east of Cragg in a valley is the ancient burial ground of this branch of the family. This cemetery has an interesting coffin rest (18th century or earlier), and one can easily see many Ryan graves and read inscriptions going back to the Great Famine era of the mid-19th century.
Across the River Shannon in County Clare is a cathedral erected by King Donal Mor O'Brien of Thomond at Killaloe. The castle was granted to a member of the Ryan family when the monasteries in Ireland were destroyed by King Henry VIII in the 16th century. Historical documents show that "William Ryane of Tipperary, Gent, in consideration of the sum of 6 pounds 13 shillings, was given it to hold forever" upon payment of a twentieth part of a knight's fee and a rent of four pence. Killaloe Cathedral is still in regular use as the Church of Ireland's main church in that diocese.
Ballymackeogh House, Newport
At Newport, County Tipperary, six miles north of Abingdon, is one of the best-preserved buildings associated with the Ryan clan, Ballymackeogh House. For centuries, it was the home of a branch of the family that originated in the Nenagh, County Tipperary area. An ancient church and burial ground for this and other branches of the family are located beside the long driveway leading to the house.
The ruins of Cully Castle are situated less than three miles from Newport in the foothills of the Slieve Felim mountains. Confiscated from Teige Ryan by Oliver Cromwell's forces in 1642, this large fortress was granted to Hardress Waller, who renamed it Castle Waller. It is now an ivy-clad ruin and includes two acres of orchards surrounded by high walls
Another building that became the property of the Ryans in King Henry VIII's time was the old Augustine Priory in Tipperary Town. It was granted to a William Ryan for 20 pounds.
(I can't find anything on this. Is there anything there to see?)
3:00 Check into the Great Southern Hotel at Shannon Airport
4:00 Travel to Bunratty Castle and Folk park for sightseeing and final dinner together
Wednesday, September 13, 2000
???? Check out of Great Southern Hotel
???? Return to U.S.
Astro Travel & Tours in Tallahassee, Florida has been selected as the travel agency which will make all travel arrangements, reservations, and accept payments. An e-mail address will be advertised in the next 30 days and instructions given by then on making your personal reservations. PLEASE DO NOT attempt to contact this company prior to being notified to do so!!
TO BOSTON AND GOING BACK HOME
It will be each attendees responsibility to arrive in Boston prior to the departure to Dublin and make the appropriate reservations to return home from Boston. Reservations for airline flights to get there and for going home will be available through our travel agent who will attempt to obtain the best available price and schedule. Our travel agent will also be available for making hotel arrangements in Boston should an overnight accommodation be needed.
Transportation from Dublin to Shannon will be by tour bus since the vast majority of current attendees have indicated an interest in such. Those wishing to rent their own car can do so and take advantage of any sites they wish to see together with the group. Transportation to and from airports will be arranged by the Association.
MEMBERSHIP IN ASSOCIATION
Attendees to the Ryan Rally from the U.S. are required to be paid-up members of the Association before any reservations can be accepted. Please see our membership information on the main Ryan Clan Association web page:http://www.ryans.org
3 nights in Dublin
1 night in Waterford
2 nights in Dundrum, CountyTipperary
1 night in Ring of Kerry area
1 night in Ennistymon Falls Hotel
1night in Shannon Great Southern Hotel
Dublin has a Jury's Inn. Waterford has a Jury's Hotel well try to swing a deal.
Each attendee will be responsible for making the necessary arrangements for an ample supply of prescriptions and medicines. IT SHOULD BE ASSUMED THAT THESE WILL NOT BE AVAILABLE IN IRELAND!! Likewise, anyone with serious illnesses or other infirmity should IMMEDIATELY let the Association know its extent prior to making any reservations!
COST OF TRIP
Currently being researched.
NOT IN THE U.S. BUT WANT TO ATTEND RALLY??
YOU ARE MOST CERTAINLY WELCOME TO ATTEND!!!
If youre in Australia, please contact:
Ted Ryan, President, Ryan Clan of Australia -firstname.lastname@example.org
If youre in Ireland, please contact:
Chris Ryan, President, Ryan Clan of Ireland - email@example.com
If youre located elsewhere, contact any of us and well be happy to assist!! Wed love to have you attend no matter where youre coming from!!
Please contact: J. Terry Ryan, President Ryan Clan Association, U.S. at: firstname.lastname@example.org should you have any questions.
ADDITIONAL HISTORICAL INFORMATION OF INTEREST
In Cashel, Bothán Scór:
The Bothán Scór is a peasant cottage. Known locally as "Hanley's Cottage", it has a history traceable to 1623. Located on the Clonmel Road, on the outskirts of Cashel, it was one of 10 peasant cottages on the estate of the then landlord, Lawler. Four of the cottages were made of stone, and the rest of mud and wattles. The stone cottages were more expensive to rent. One cottage was windowless, as no window tax was collected for it. It is thought that at one time the Bothán Scór was used as a school and was exempt from window tax after 1625.
Among the families recorded as living in the Bothán Scór (records are incomplete) are O'Maoladh (O'Malley) 1623, O'Duibhir (O'Dwyer) 1647, O'Riain (Ryan) 1684, O'Duibhir (O'Dwyer) 1714, Hanleys and descendants 1717, Albert Carrie 1972, Chez Hans 1975, Michael Gleason 1976 and Christy Hewitt 1978.
Two of the cottages were "pool-side" cottages, one of which was the Bothán Scór. The Ducking Pool, which is across the road opposite the Bothán Scór, was used to publicly "duck" ladies engaging in "unsociable behaviour" as a means of punishment.
The Cottage and the Ducking Pool were restored in the 1980s by the Cashel Heritage Society. One of the Bothán's former residents, Albert Carrie, undertook much of the restoration work.
Landed Gentry of Kilkenny County (1640)
From the end of the high medieval period (ca 1350) to the time of just prior to the Cromwell confiscations (ca 1650), County Kilkenny (and Tipperary) came to be dominated by the Butler families, headed by the earl of Ormond who, at different times, had ruled from Nenagh, Carrick-on-Suir and, most particularly, from Kilkenny city. The Butlers had become dominant land owners in the towns of Roscrea, Nenagh, Thurles, Cahir, Gowran, Knocktopher, Inistioge and Callan, thereby controlling the core areas of the economy. The Ormond Butler lands of Kilkenny practically commanded all the frontier territories of the county, as well as part of the rich middle core from Dunmore in the north to the former monastic lands of Jerpoint. Lord Mountgarret (of Butler ancestry) dominated the lowlands along the strategic territories fronting the former Gaelic zone to the north. Likewise, other key Ormond allies held frontier lands bordering the county, including the Graces to the northwest, and the Purcells and the Cantwells to the northeast. In addition, underneath the Butler overlordship, the head tenants on the individual manors were for the most part lesser Butlers, or members of other leading English landed families such as the Comerfords.
The remainder of the rich central lowlands of county Kilkenny was dominated by Norman families such as the Shortalls, the St.Legers and the Blanchfields. Further dominating the lowland scene were leading merchant families of Kilkenny city and allies/kinsmen of the Butlers -- the Shees, the Rothes, and the Archers. In addition, the Bishop of Ossory held over 5,000 acres scattered throughout this lowland core.
To the south, the complex hierarchical territories of the Walsh family (the Lords of the Mountain) extend right across the county from Tibberaghny in the west to near Rosbercon in the east. Here Robert Walsh alone held over 10,000 acres. Other key centers in this upland region were manned by members of the extended kingroup of the Walshes. This kinship strategy was also characteristic of all the major families in Tipperary, Kilkenny and elsewhere, revealing the interweaving of 'Gaelic' and 'feudal' strategies of land management and social control. The remainder of the south was dominated by long established landed families: the Forstalls dominated in the parishes of Ballygurrim and Kilmakevoge; the Fitzgeralds were lords of Brownsford and Gurteen, William Gaule held 1,631 acres around Dunkitt and Gaulskill; Edmund Dalton, near Piltown, controlled 2,179 acres; while families like the Denns and the Freneys were also strongly represented. Some descendants of Waterford merchant families, such as the Stranges and the Grants, were well-established in the lands fringing the lower courses of the navigable rivers.
County Kilkenny was therefore dominated up to the 1640's by a long established territorial, political and social hierarchy headed by the earl of Ormond, who directly ruled over 50,000 plantation acres. The next level in the hierarchy was represented by Lord Mountgarret with close to 20,000 acres. Then came a third layer of eight major owners: John Grace, Robert Walsh, Sir Edmund Butler, Henry Archer, John Bryan, the Bishop of Ossory, Phillip Purcell and Robert Shee, each with estates of 5,000 to 10,000 acres. Beneath this group was a further eleven landowners, including Shortall, Strange, Blanchfield, Freney, Fitzgerald, Dalton, Cantwell, Rothe, Denn, Forstall, and St. Leger. Underneath this group were three Fitzgeralds, two Butlers, two Walshes, one Strange, one Grant, one Purcell, one Dobbin, one Sweetman, one Comerford, one Shortall, one Walton and one Dalton. Then came smaller landowners - 22 with estates from 500 to 900 acres from William Drilling to Thomas Grant. A further 29 held estates from 330 to 490 acres beginning with James St. Leger down to Joseph Walsh. A further 41 smaller landowners held estates/farms from 200 to 280 acres.
The total list of landowners included at least 13 each of the Walshes and Butlers, 11 Shortalls, 8 St. Legers, 7 Fitzgeralds, 6 each of the Archdeacon/Codys and Graces, 5 each of the Forstalls and Dobbins, 4 each of the Comerfords, Denns, Grants, Rothes and Shees. At least 3 Blanchfield families are represented, and two each from the following families: Cantwells, Sweetmans, Gauls, Freneys, Kealys, Aylwards, Howlings, Bryans and Cowleys. See 1640 Landowner Map.
The Gaelic lands of Kilkenny, in contrast, had almost disappeared by 1640. In the previous 60 years the vast patrimony of the O'Brennans of Fassadinin had been whittled down to a pathetic 60 acres by the insidious penetration of the earl of Ormond and his Old English henchman, and finally obliterated by the creation of the great modern estate of the Wandesfords centered in Castlecomer. Only the Ryans from their hearthland in Idrone in Carlow kept a residual if resilient foothold in the Leighlin parishes of east county Kilkenny. In the extreme northeast, the Bryan family (a branch of the Idrone O'Byrnes of Carlow but now clearly assimilated to the Old English order) manned the gap on the edge of the former woodlands and boglands of the Gaelic fastnesses of the northwest. The Gaelic substratum being very deep, beneath the Cambro-Norman landowners, the surviving hearth money records of the 1660s bring up the layers of Cahills, Hennessys, Phelans, Keefes, Meaghers, Murphys, Brennans, Brophys, and Delaneys interwoven in complex webs throughout the townlands, villages and towns.
* Excerpts from Kilkenny History and Society
Beginning in the mid 1600's, the profile of landowners in Kilkenny changed dramatically once more. The coming of Cromwellian and Williamite forces brought the end of Catholic land ownership, the transplantation of the Old English families into Connacht, as well as the movement of family members serving in the 'Jacobite' army into the armed forces of foreign countries. The ascendancy of the New English Families into Kilkenny reached its peak by the year 1703.